In recent years 纺织品 has increasingly become a medium of significance in the 艺术 world. In other words, the fibre 艺术 s are now being shown in many 艺术 exhibitions. Unfortunately, the work of those who actually call themselves fibre 艺术 ists rarely appear in these, unless they saw their heyday some 40 or 50 years ago, in which case they are now elderly or deceased. Up until now, there have been mostly closed networks of ‘fine’ 艺术 and 纺织品 艺术 exhibitions. However, an increasing number of 艺术 ists who have started to use 纺织品 as a medium are being featured in 纺织品 exhibitions. This is rightly seen as an enrichment. Are the boundaries between 美术 and fibre 艺术 blurring?
The 里斯韦克纺织双年展 is a pioneer in this regard, because from the very first edition a mix of fine and fibre 艺术 s have been presented. This biennial developed logically from the Rijswijk Paper Biennial that had been organized by Museum Rijswijk since 1996. While in Dutch terminology the paper and 纺织品 艺术 s are divided, in 英语 they are united under the concept of Fibre Art. The Textile Biennials commenced in 2009 in order to ensure the inclusion of 纺织品 艺术 .
The aim of both biennials is to show the innovative elements of contemporary 纺织品 and 纸艺 , whether in 艺术 istic or material terms. By focusing on innovation, 艺术 ists who are working in new and often surprising ways with 纺织品 form the majority in this exhibition: only 7 of the 24 艺术 ists selected this year are still connected to 纺织品 traditions and regarded as specifically 纺织品 艺术 ists. However, Museum Rijswijk with its Textile Biennials knows how to recognize and appreciate well-made 纺织品 艺术 .
What do curators of 纺织品 艺术 exhibitions say about their reasons for showing 纺织品? Some are finished with all the ‘-isms’ of the 20th century. Others see that in today’s virtual world there is a strong desire for tactile things, objects that people can touch.
A highpoint was reached in 2014 in Europe, with various large-scale exhibitions featuring 艺术 and 纺织品. In Wolfsburg, Germany there was the most important show: 艺术& Textiles (2013/14),1 在规模和涵盖的时期（从20世纪初到现在）与 巴黎装饰展（2013/14）.2 法国策展人借鉴了挂毯制作的传统，并将注意力集中在洛桑的挂毯双年展（1962年至1994年举行）上，而沃尔夫斯堡展览则更多地关注了纺织品对现代抽象艺术的影响。两次展览的组织者都强调说，他们想打破关于纺织业是妇女领域的先入为主的观念，认为纺织业不合时宜，原始且与工业发展保持一致。相反，他们的目的是阐明生命力和感性方面-在数字时代可能会消失的特征。可悲的是，策展人专注于现代纺织艺术中的“大牌”，而在任何一次展览中都没有当代纤维艺术家的空间。 《纤维艺术》杂志的前编辑乔安娜·马泰拉（Joanna Mattera）对此回应：“不要开枪，但对我来说很明显… the ‘fiber’ or ‘textile’形容词与拥有广泛艺术世界职业的艺术家无缘”.3
展览的组织者 纤维：雕塑1960–礼物（美国波士顿，2014年），并有由Jenelle Porter编辑的目录，4 were well-informed about 纺织品 艺术 s. Porter and her female co-authors (to me, it’s no coincidence that women made this happen here) understood the extent of the revolution in 纺织品 艺术 in the 1960s and 1970s. They saw that no one in their professional 艺术 circles ever discussed this and found it incomprehensible.
Porter attributed the discussion of 纺织品 艺术 as sculpture (rather than crafting) to 纺织品 艺术 ist Lenore Tawney, who was doing so already in the 1960s. She wrote: “到1972年，挂毯转变为一种被称为‘fiber 艺术 ’ represented an expansion of the category of sculpture by a generation of 艺术 ists who approached 艺术 making with radical new ideas”. This was the right approach, but one that unfortunately seemed to limit itself to the big names of the Lausanne Biennials. Again, the work of younger fibre 艺术 ists was invisible (though a few young sculptors working with 纺织品 were included).
在过去的两三年中，近代的纤维艺术家中的知名人物在诸如 汉娜·雷根（Hannah Ryggen） （1894-1970）在奥斯陆和 弗里达·汉森（Frida Hansen） （1855-1931）在斯塔万格。莱比锡举办了一个展览 约翰娜·舒兹·沃尔夫 （1896-1965），与安妮·阿尔伯斯相当的德国织布工。 纺织室 in Zürich showed the history of 纺织品 艺术 in Switzerland, with well-known 艺术 ists such as Elsi Giauque (1900-1984) and Sophie Tauber-Arp (1889-1943). More famous names from the Lausanne Biennial period were presented in Tapisseries Nomades，其作品来自洛桑汤姆斯保利基金会的收藏。令人惊讶的是，所展示的作品像40或50年前一样充满活力。
The raised profiles of the leading players could mean that the history of modern 纺织品 艺术 has been able to attract more attention in general. Contemporary fibre 艺术 ists would then be the next generation to be in the limelight. Alas, it seems this isn’t going to be happening anytime soon. Sometimes there is hope on the horizon, such as when fibre 艺术 ists themselves become active, as happened in Italy where a big exhibition was organized in the Museo Nazionale delle Arti e delle Tradizione Populari in Rome in 2015. 卧房II 之所以取得成功，是因为他们看到威尼斯双年展上出现了很多与纤维相关的艺术，却没有参与其中。
In the meantime, there have been exhibitions that included ‘art with 纺织品’, though not so many. In An exploration of 纺织品s as a medium for social, political and 艺术 istic expression in Manchester (2015), the usual mix of old and new names were shown: 艺术 ists like Magdalena Abakanowicz, Tracey Emin, Grayson Perry, Ghada Amer and Kimsooja, who use 纺织品 as a medium to express their ideas on social issues, politics and 艺术 . Among the contemporary 艺术 ists, once again there were no fibre 艺术 ists. One American 艺术 critic noted “…艺术界痴迷于名人和金钱，而知名艺术家却被高估了。”
今年的艺术展充满希望 纠结：线程和制作 在英国马盖特的特纳当代艺术博物馆 5 在这些地方，除了像安妮·阿尔伯斯（Anni Albers），路易丝·布尔乔瓦（Louise Bourgeois），索尼亚·德劳内（Sonia Delaunay），伊娃·黑塞（Eva Hesse）和汉娜·里根（Hannah Ryggen）这样的著名名字之外，还展示了当代纤维艺术家，例如织锦织布工莫琳·霍奇（Maureen Hodge）。展览中展出了40位不同女性的作品，这些女性“经常借鉴丰富的手工和手工艺传统，创作出挑战美术与应用艺术之间既有区别的艺术品”。
美术和纤维艺术世界的统一似乎正在取得进展，但是仍然有很长的路要走。像这样的展览 里斯韦克纺织双年展 是朝着正确方向迈出的令人鼓舞的一步。
3. Joanne Mattera，‘光纤，无处不在的光纤’在《表面设计期刊》上发表，2013年秋季。
5. 纠缠展览：线和制作，特纳当代艺术展，马盖特，英国，2017年。目录编辑：凯伦·赖特（Karen Wright）。
本文发表在2017年里斯韦克纺织双年展的目录中; Diana Beaufort翻译